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山东省郯城第三中学高中英语 语法复* 名词性从句


山东省郯城第三中学高中英语 语法复* 名词性从句
在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词从句 (Noun Clauses) 。 名词从句的功能相当于名词词组, 它在复合 句中能担任主语、宾语、表语、同位语、介词宾语等,因此根据它在句中不同的语法功能,名词从句又可 分别称为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。 17.1 引导名词性从句的连接词 引导名词性从句的连接词可分为三类: 连接词:that,whether,if 不充当从句的任何成分) 连接代词:what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which. 连接副词:when, where, how, why 不可省略的连词: 1. 介词后的连词 2. 引导主语从句和同位语从句的连词不可省略。 That she was chosen made us very happy. We heard the news that our team had won. 比较:whether 与 if 均为"是否"的意思。 但在下列情况下,whether 不能被 if 取代: 1. whether 引导主语从句并在句首 2. 引导表语从句 3. whether 从句作介词宾语 4. 从句后有"or not" Whether he will come is not clear. 大部分连接词引导的主语从句都可以置于句末,用 it 充当形式主语。 It is not important who will go. It is still unknown which team will win the match. 17.2 名词性 that-从句 1)由从属连词 that 引导的从句叫做名词性 that-从句。 That 只起连接主句和从句的作用,在从句中不担 任任何成分,本身也没有词义。名词性 that-从句在句中能充当主 语、宾语、表语、同位语和形容词宾语, 例如: 主语:That he is still alive is sheer luck. 他还活着全靠运气。 宾语:John said that he was leaving for London on Wednesday. 约翰说他星期三要到伦敦去。 表语:The fact is that he has not been seen recently. 事实是*来谁也没有见过他。 同位语:The fact that he has not been seen recently disturbs everyone in his office. *来谁也没有见过他,这一事实令办公室所有的人不安。 形容词宾语:I am glad that you are satisfied with your job. 你对工作满意我感到很高兴。 2)That- 从句作主语通常用 it 作先行词,而将 that-从句置于句末,例如: It is quite clear that the whole project is doomed to failure. 很清楚,整个计划注定要失 败。 It's a pity that you should have to leave. 你非走不可真是件憾事。 用 it 作形式主语的 that-从句有以下四种不同的搭配关系: a. It + be +形容词+ that-从句 It is necessary that… 有必要…… It is important that… 重要的是…… It is obvious that… 很明显……

b. It + be + -ed 分词+ that-从句 It is believed that… 人们相信…… It is known to all that… 从所周知…… It has been decided that… 已决定…… c. It + be +名词+ that-从句 It is common knowledge that… ……是常识 It is a surprise that… 令人惊奇的是…… It is a fact that… 事实是…… d. It +不及物动词+ that-分句 It appears that… 似乎…… It happens that… 碰巧…… It occurred to me that… 我突然想起…… 17.3 名词性 wh-从句 1) 由 wh-词引导的名词从句叫做名词性 wh-从句。 Wh-词包括 who, whom,. whose, whoever, what, whatever, which, whichever 等连接代词和 where, when, how, why 等连接副词。Wh-从句的语法功能除了和 that从句一样外,还可充当介词宾语、宾语补语和间接宾语等,例如: 主语: How the book will sell depends on its author. 书销售如何取决于作者本人。 直接宾语:In one's own home one can do what one likes. 在自己家里可以随心所欲。 间接宾语:The club will give whoever wins a prize. 俱乐部将给得胜者设奖。 表语: My question is who will take over president of the Foundation. 我的问题是谁将接任该基 金会主席职位。 宾语补足语:She will name him whatever she wants to. 她高兴给他起什么名字就取什么名字。 同位语: I have no idea when he will return. 我不知道他什么时候回来。 形容词宾语:I'm not sure why she refused their invitation. 我尚不能肯定她为什么拒绝他们的邀 请。 介词宾语: That depends on where we shall go. 那取决于我们去哪儿。 2)Wh-从句作主语也常用先行词 it 做形式主语,而将 wh-从句置于句末,例如: It is not yet decided who will do that job. 还没决定谁做这项工作。 It remains unknown when they are going to get married. 他们何时结婚依然不明。 17.4 if, whether 引导的名词从句 1)yes-no 型疑问从句 从属连词 if, whether 引导的名词从句是由一般疑问句或选择疑问转化而来的,因此也分别被称为 yes-no 型疑问句从句和选择型疑问从句,其功能和 wh-从句的功能相同, 例如: 主语:Whether the plan is feasible remains to be proved. 这一计划是否可行还有等证实。 宾语:Let us know whether / if you can finish the article before Friday. 请让我们知道你是 否能在星期五以前把文章写完。 表语:The point is whether we should lend him the money. 问题在于我们是否应该借钱给他。 同位语:They are investigating the question whether the man is trustworthy. 他们调查他是否 值得信赖。 形容词宾语: She's doubtful whether we shall be able to come. 她怀疑我们是否能够前来。

介词宾语: I worry about whether he can pass through the crisis of his illness. 我担心他 是否能度过疾病的危险期。 2)选择性疑问从句 选择性疑问从句由关联词 if/whether…or 或 whethe…or not 构成,例如: Please tell me whether / if they are Swedish or Danish. 请告诉我他们是瑞典人还是丹麦人。 I don't care whether you like the plan or not.我不在乎你是否喜欢该计划。 17.5 否定转移 1) 将 think, believe, suppose, expect, fancy, imagine 等动词后面宾语从句的否定词转移到主句中, 即主句的谓语动词用否定式,而从句的谓语动词用肯定式。 I don't think I know you. 我想我并不认识你。 I don' t believe he will come. 我相信他不回来。 注意:若谓语动词为 hope,宾语从句中的否定词不能转移。 I hope you weren't ill. 我想你没有生病吧。 2) 将 seem, appear 等后的从句的否定转移到前面。 It doesn't seem that they know where to go. 看来他们不知道往哪去。 It doesn't appear that we'll have a sunny day tomorrow. 看来我们明天不会碰上好天气。 3) 有时将动名词,介词短语或整个从句的否定转变为对谓语动词的否定。 I don't remember having ever seen such a man. 我记得从未见过这样一个人。 (not 否定动名词短语 having…) It's not a place where anyone would expect to see strange characters on the street. 在这里,人们不会想到在街上会碰上陌生的人。 (anyone 作主语,从句中的谓语动词不能用否定形式。) 4) 有时状语或状语从句中否定可以转移到谓语动词前。 The ant is not gathering this for itself alone. (否定状语) 蚂蚁不只是为自己采食。 He was not ready to believe something just because Aristotle said so. (否定 because 状语) 他 并不因亚里斯多德说过如何如何,就轻信此事。 She had not been married many weeks when that man's younger brother saw her and was struck by her beauty. (否定状语 many weeks) 她结婚还不到几个月,这个人的弟弟就看见她了,并对她的美 貌着了迷。 12、如果宾语从句后还有宾语补足语,则必须用 it 作形式宾语,而将宾语从句后置,并且 that 不能省略。 例 He has made it clear that he will not give in. 他清楚地表明他不会屈服。 13、doubt 用于肯定结构时,后面用 whether/ if 引导名词性从句;用于否定结构或疑问结构时,后 面用 that 引导名词性从句。be sure 用于肯定句或疑问句时,后接 that 引导的名词性从句;用于否定句 时,后接 whether/ if 引导的名词性从句。 例 We doubt whether/ if he can win the game.我们怀疑他是否能赢得这场比赛。 高考英语专项指导 名词性从句重难点剖析(3) 14、连接代词 whoever,whatever,whichever 可引导名词性从句,相当于 anyone who, anything that 等。他们也可以引导让步状语从句,相当于 no matter who/ what/ which。 例 Whoever breaks the law should be punished. 任何违法的人都要受到惩罚。

二、高考链接 1. It is pretty well understood ___ controls the flow of carbon dioxide in and out the atmosphere today. (2003 上海) A. that B. whenC. what D. how 2. --- I think it’s going to be a big problem. --- Yes, it could be. --- I wonder ___ we do about it.(2002 上海春) A. if B. how C. what D. that 3. You should make it a rule to leave things ___ you can find them often. (1999NMET) A. when B. where C. then D. there 4. A computer can only do ____ you have instructed it to do. (2001NMET) A. how B. after C. what D. when 5. You are saying that everyone should be equal, and this is ___ I disagree. (2004 NMET) A. why B. where C. what D. how 6. I like ___ in the autumn when the weather is clear and bright. (2004 NMET) A. this B. that C. it D. one 7. The road is covered with snow. I can’t understand ___ they insist on going by motor-bike. (2004NMET) A. Why B. whether C. when D. how

8. We can’t figure out ___ quite a number of insects, birds, and animals are dying out.(2004 北京) A. that B. as C. why D. when 9. After Yang Liwei succeeded circling the earth, ___ our astronauts to do is walk in space. (2004 上海) A. where B. what C. that D. how 10. A story goes ___ Elizabeth I of England liked nothing more than being surrounded by clever and qualified noblemen at court. (2004 上海) A. when B. where C. what D. that 1. He has given us a suggestion ____ we should buy a cottage in the country, with the money we have saved. A. when B. where C. what D. that 2. After five hours’ drive, they reached ____ they thought was the place they’d been dreaming of. A. that B. where C. which D. what 3. It is no longer a question now ___ man can land on the moon. A. that B. which C. whether D. what 4. She is pleased with ____ you have given him and all that you have told him. A. that B. what

C. why D. which 5. Father made a promise ____ I passed the exam, he would buy me a bicycle. A. that B. if C. whether D. that if 6. ____ surprised me most was that she didn’t even know ____ the difference between the two lies. A. What, where B. What, what C. That, where D. That, what 7. Sometimes we are asked ___ we think the likely result of an action will be. A. that B. what C. which D. whether 8. Nobody knows ___ he mentioned that at the meeting. A. that B. why C. what D. where 9. There is no doubt ____ my friend was not important to them all. A. that B. whether C. if D. why 10. I have no idea ____ they will visit our school; we have got everything ready. A. how B. when C. that D. why

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